This is an original press statement released January 2019.
Evaluating the recent correction on almost all stock-markets with objective criteria.

Prices on almost all stock-markets went down substantially in the second half of 2019. Healthy corrections or the start of a real crisis? The usual comparison below between the theoretical unleveraged PE ratio and the latest actual price/earnings (PE) ratios in various countries, might contain answers.
Country1. Risk Premium
2. Risk free rate
3. Discount rate
4. Capitalized Discount
rate =PE(100/col. 3)
5. PE local index, unweighted
end 2018
6. Difference
(col. 4-5)
NL6,38%0,22%6,60%15,15.AEX, 31-12-18: 16,0-0,85
BE4,50%0,74%5,24%19,1BEL20, 31-12-18: 11,7+7,4
DE6,31%0,3%6,6115,1DAX, 31-12-18: 12,9+2,2
FR6,38%0,62%7,00%14,9CAC40, 31-12-18: 15,4-0,5
UK2,87%1,50%4,37%22,9FTSE100, 31-12-18: 19,9+3
US6,77%2,33%9,10%10,99DJ30, 31-12-18: 17,2-6,21

The theoretical foundation of that comparison is based on the generally accepted Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). That theory states that the correct discount rate in share valuation is the sum of a risk free interest rate + a risk premium. Column 1 contains the most recent risk premiums, based on the longest possible period (since 1900) as an average of all 7 calculation methods. Column 2 contains the risk free long term interest rate for long term government bonds at the start of the year. Column 3 contains the sum of both and column 4 the reciprocal, an unleveraged Capitalized Discount rate or theoretical PE. Column 5 represents actual PE-ratio's based on 2018 net company profits in each major local index. The last column 6 deducts column 5 minus 4, showing the difference between the theoretical unleveraged PE-ratio minus the actual PE. Positive differences in black hint at undervaluation, negative ones are shown in red and hint that markets are overvalued. However, before jumping to conclusions, some other factors should be taken into account.

  • Relative difference: In 2006, just before the credit crisis and using basically the same model, all markets appeared overvalued as shown here. The USA on top in 2006 with -9,2, more then 100% of the Capitalized Discount rate in column 4. Now, just after the last correction end 2018, a 'reassuring' -6,21 appears, 'only' 57% higher.
  • Leverage: The comparison above is based on an unleveraged Capitalized Discount rate. Converting into a leveraged rate, implies a sustainable leverage (equity/equity+loans) of 51% even in the USA. In 2007 an unsustainable negative leverage was needed in all countries.
  • Interest and dividend rates: The risk free interest rate is lower then average dividend returns. Risk premiums reached again more or less the pre-crisis levels of 2006. But in all countries except the USA risk free rates remain below 2006 levels and lower then average dividend returns. Only in the USA dividend returns with 2,64% is very close to the risk free rate of 2,33.
  • Based on the facts above, the recent stock market corrections end 2018 in most countries looks more like a healthy correction on strong increases in earlier years.

    For any question please Email. All information is based on sources deemed to be trustworthy. All forward looking statements are subject to all required qualifications. Not any responsibility is taken for any conclusion.